Crowd density


Click here for information on our eLearning version of “Introduction to Crowd Science


IMG 3055

Using images in the control room for density reference

To download a set of density images - click on the link below

25 m2


625 m2


In places of public assembly it is important to differentiate how spaces are used. We define two fundamental types - static and dynamic. Static spaces are where the crowds predominately stand/observe and dynamic spaces are areas where the crowds are typically moving.

 These two types of space will have different utilisation factors, experience different densities and hence have different types of risk and crowd management requirements. For example a concert will experience higher crowd densities closest to the front of stage. Routes to and from entry/exit points, bars, concession etc. should be free of trip hazards. These different spaces should be differentiated in the site plan  so that operators know where the crowds are moving and where crowds are predominately standing/static. 

Standing crowd densities are illustrate via the links below. 

Static crowd density

Tennis court - reference crowd 100 square metres 1

Tennis court - reference crowd 100 square metres 2

Tennis court - reference crowd 100 square metres 3

Tennis court - reference crowd 100 square metres 4

Tennis court - reference crowd 100 square metres 5

Tennis court - reference crowd 100 square metres 6

Tennis court - reference crowd 625 square metres 1

Tennis court - reference crowd 625 square metres 2

Tennis court - reference crowd 625 square metres 3

Tennis court - reference crowd 625 square metres 4

Tennis court - reference crowd 625 square metres 5

Tennis court - reference crowd 625 square metres 6

Visualising crowd density

Moving crowd density

Fruin - levels of service

Some hisotorical images of crowds

Below, Hamden park (needs a crowd density evaluation) 

Bern’s Wankdorf Stadium ahead of the 1954 World Cup. Historical crowd density estimator. 6 people per square metre. Long before the European standards and the Green Guide. Amazing image.

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